Skin Cancer Prevention

Our Skin Cancer Prevention Programme exists to ensure no person with albinism dies of skin cancer

The Issue

A study at one of our clinic sites showed presentations of skin cancer to have reduced by 85.7% since our first visit.

With over eight hours of intense sunlight a day, East Africa is one of the hottest places on Earth. Without the protective pigment melanin, people with albinism are highly vulnerable to skin cancer. Inadequate skin screening provision, lethally slow rates of diagnosis and an appalling lack of sun protection education, sunscreen, wide-brimmed hats and protective clothing have given epidemic prevalence to this otherwise preventable disease. Available estimates suggest fewer than 10% of people with albinism in Tanzania survive skin cancer to reach the age of 40.

Standing Voice’s Skin Cancer Prevention Programme is an expanding network of regular skincare clinics reaching thousands of people with albinism in their own communities across Tanzania. We reach over 2,000 people with albinism every 4 months, and operate at 30 clinic sites across 9 regions of Tanzania. Prior to our services, the majority of those with albinism lacked access to adequate skincare, while the fortunate few receiving treatment faced an average waiting time of 14-17 months. Our patients now wait a maximum of 4 months. The Skin Cancer Prevention Programme is a blueprint to be replicated and expanded across Sub-Saharan Africa.

SKIN CANCER - IN NUMBERS

2%
CRISIS

Just 2% of people with albinism in Tanzania live beyond the age of 40

17 to 4
PATIENT WAITING TIME (MONTHS)

Average treatment waiting time for skin cancer patients in Tanzania before our programme began: 14-17 months. Our patients now wait a maximum of 4 months.

16477
PEOPLE WITH ALBINISM IN TANZANIA

We currently reach 15.1% of all people with albinism in Tanzania

The Programme

SKIN CANCER AND ALBINISM

The sun emits ultraviolet rays. These rays cause skin cancer by interacting with genetic information (DNA) in skin cells and inducing oxidative damage. Melanin is a photoprotective pigment that interrupts the ability of sunlight to damage skin cells, absorbing UV rays and dissipating their energy as harmless heat. Albinism impedes the production of melanin, removing this natural defence against the harmful rays of the sun. As a result, people with albinism are uniquely susceptible to sunburn, and at elevated risk of developing skin cancers related to chronic sun exposure. They are particularly vulnerable to basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (though no more prone to melanoma than anyone else). Basal cell carcinoma develops in the bottom of the epidermis over a number of years, and is unlikely to invade surrounding tissue. Squamous cell carcinoma originates in the top of the epidermis, grows rapidly, and is more likely to spread to other areas of the body.

Lifetime exposure to UV radiation is the single greatest risk factor for developing skin cancer. Periods of high exposure or instances of extreme sunburn, especially in childhood, can precipitate the emergence of skin cancer later in life. If the disease does develop, early detection and intervention are critical: in many cases people with albinism develop pre-cancerous patches (actinic keratoses) that can be removed with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy before cancer occurs. Skin cancer is not always preventable, but the likelihood of acquisition can be reduced by minimising exposure to sunlight (particularly around midday), applying sunscreen, and wearing long-sleeved clothing and wide-brimmed hats outdoors. Because they lack the natural protection afforded by melanin, people with albinism must exercise particular vigilance in these areas.

In East Africa UV radiation is especially intense, further elevating the risk of skin cancer for people with albinism. In Tanzania social marginalisation and stigma combine to exacerbate this threat. In the past, dermatological care for Tanzanians with albinism has been insufficient. Until now, services have been sporadic, with limited geographical reach and no structured referral process, leaving many with albinism with poor screening provision and lethal delays in cancer diagnosis. Historically Tanzanian hospitals have struggled to address the needs of people with albinism. Hospitals have often lacked resources, rarely possessing the infrastructure or facilities to develop dermatology services. People with albinism seldom have the financial means to pay fees for skin cancer treatment: the vast majority of our patients have never seen a doctor about their skin when they first attend our clinics. This vulnerable population has been disconnected from doctors, hospitals and healthcare networks of any description. This has directly precipitated the epidemic we see now. Frequently marginalised from education and formal employment, people with albinism in Tanzania are also more likely to work as subsistence farmers, spending long hours outside in the blistering heat. Sun protection education is alarmingly rare in Tanzania, so people with albinism, and parents of children with albinism, are frequently ignorant of necessary preventative measures. Together these elements have produced an epidemic among this population, with only 2% of Tanzanians with albinism surviving skin cancer to reach the age of 40.

THE MODEL

Standing Voice combats this situation by activating, equipping and connecting existing networks of dermatologists and other stakeholders inside Tanzania to provide a regular clinic service to people with albinism across the country.

Our team has carefully structured the programme to provide: clear roles for every stakeholder; specific, realistic budgets; a well-defined strategy for data collection; comprehensive training for health professionals and a clinic service thoroughly equipped, monitored, and evaluated.

Costs are managed in line with government expenditure so that our programme can be easily absorbed into the country’s national health budget. While we do mobilise the skills of international experts to facilitate training, service delivery is always locally led.

For people with albinism, the entire service is free, reliable and consistent. Clinics are conducted locally in patients’ home communities every four months. With two dermatologists at each of our clinics, patients receive skin cancer screening and liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to remove any pre-cancerous wounds on site. Patients also receive Kilimanjaro Sunscreen (Kilisun), a thicker, stronger, Tanzanian-made sunscreen specifically designed for people with albinism; Standing Voice funds the production of Kilisun through the Kilimanjaro Sunscreen Production Unit in Moshi, Tanzania. Our clinics also educate people with albinism, as well as their families, teachers, and wider community members, to manage their health needs. Dermatologists provide practical education on how to limit UV exposure with protective clothing, wide-brimmed hats and Kilisun, and explain how to monitor dermatological health through self-examination.

Following critical data collection, any patients presenting advanced cancerous wounds are referred to the relevant hospital for emergency surgery, an urgent medical service unavailable before our programme. Our team coordinates and funds the patient referral process, covering travel to (and from) the relevant referral hospital and the cost of treatment itself. After surgery, we arrange for patients to stay in safe, comfortable environments before ultimately returning home. Between clinic cycles we follow up with patients to identify any changes in dermatological health, making surgery referrals where necessary. Crucially, we fund surgery training for Tanzanian dermatologists to expand our network of in-country referral hospitals.

Our clinics are already witnessing significant strides toward replication and handover, with some district governments now covering selected costs in their areas; providing transport for patients to attend; securing hospital space; and offering their own health professionals as supporting staff.

OUR TEAM AND PARTNERS

Our programme offers people with albinism a structured, regular service, run in multiple areas by our local team, Tanzanian-trained experts and wider community members. It follows Standing Voice’s blueprint of engaging in-country individuals and groups to produce sustainable, lasting change: we work with governments, healthcare professionals and civil society organisations so that Tanzanians are themselves equipped to manage the skin cancer crisis. The bare ingredients of adequate healthcare for people with albinism in Tanzania already exist: our programme brings these ingredients together.

These services involve the following key partners:

REGIONAL DERMATOLOGY TRAINING CENTRE

COMMUNITY DERMATOLOGISTS

INTERNATIONAL EXPERTS

TANZANIA ALBINISM SOCIETY

SCHOOLS AND CENTRES

HOSPITALS

MINISTRY OF HEALTH / GOVERNMENT

KILIMANJARO SUNSCREEN PRODUCTION UNIT

MEDIA

UNITED NATIONS INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON ALBINISM

OTHER NGOs AND CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS

Key Facts

85.7%

The reduction in presentations of skin cancer at one of our clinic sites.

2,000

The number of Tanzanians with albinism currently reached by our programme.

"Standing Voice delivers free and excellent services available to all. I need not be afraid of the sun anymore."

Baraka Azricome Jeje – Programme Beneficiary

"I was very ill. I had a tumour, so I was taken to the hospital and operated on. If I hadn’t had the operation I would not be alive today."

Theresa Finias – Programme Beneficiary

"This service is crucial, and must be universally available to everyone affected by albinism."

Teresa Sylvanus – Programme Beneficiary

"Your clinics have nurtured my students' individual personalities, enabling them to identify first and foremost as human beings."

Teddy James – Teacher

STORIES

Skin Cancer Prevention: Mwanza

Pierre Fabre Foundation

Skin Cancer Prevention: Programme Update

Provide quality healthcare

Our Skin Cancer Prevention Programme saves lives. Only with your generosity can this work continue.